Revised March 9, 2005; October 10, 2007 and March 27, 2013.
Copyright 1999-2013 by John W. Allen.



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Copelandia tropicalis (Ola'h) Singer & R. A. Weeks
(syn.=Panaeolus tropicalis Ola'h)



 

Cap: 1.5-2 (2.5) cm broad. Hemispherical to convex to campanulate. Margin slightly incurved in young. Pallid or grayish to yellow brown towards the center of the cap, with a marginal zonate color in the center and outer edges of the cap. becoming somewhat pitted and wrinkled with age. Sometimes blung in the cap.

Gills: Adnexed to uncinate, mottled.

Stem: 60-80 (120) long by 2-3 mm thick. Equal to swollen at the base, rapidly becoming blue where damaged or handled.

Spores: 10-12 X 7-9.

Sporeprint: Dark violet-black to black.

Habitat:This species is common in the manure of cattle and water buffalo.

Distribution: Originally identified from southeast Asia by Ola'h, it is also reported as common in the tropics and reported from Hawaii, Florida, Africa, and Cambodia.

Season: During and after heavy rainfalls.

Dosage: 7 to 10 fresh mushrooms and from 3-5 dried grams

Comment: Although many authors have listed this species as common, it has only been collected a few times in the Hawaiian Isalnds.




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